Is it required by the IRS to obtain a W-9 from a vendor to whom you are either paying a scholarship or a charitable contribution, since neither of these is 1099-reportable?

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The short answer is no (assuming a domestic context for both parts of the question).  
Payments to a non-profit charity are not reportable; if you are very conservative, you might want to have some kind of evidence/documentation of their non-profit status, if it is not self-evident (as in the case of say, the Salvation Army), but you are not required to have a W-9.

As for scholarships, no—but be aware that some scholarships are reportable, namely those that have some service requirement as a condition of the scholarship; but in such case, the recipient is classified as an employee and therefore it would be reported on a W-2, which means you’d want to obtain a W-4.

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